Innovation in Economics, Finance and Sustainable Development
DOI: 10.21070/ijins.v7i0.85

Necessity of Innovative Development of Tourism


Samarkand Institute of Economics and Service
Uzbekistan

(*) Corresponding Author

innovative development innovations tourism development Uzbekistan

Abstract

One of the features of the modern world economy is that tourism is one of the fastest-growing and highly profitable sectors of the economy. Accordingly, the article presents the work of many scholars and researchers on the need for innovative tourism development. At the same time, there were suggestions and proposals on the measures taken on the need for innovative tourism development.

Introduction

At present, tourism in many countries has become an important area of ​​economic growth. The main advantage of tourism is that it has a great impact on income generation and job creation. For many regions and countries this is of the utmost importance.

Countries, especially those with developed economies, who have properly appraised the role and prospects of tourism in the socio-economic development of society and understand the need for its effective use, pay much attention to developing this sector. It is no coincidence that such countries are pursuing wise macroeconomic policies aimed at making the most of the great potential of tourism and achieving significant results in boosting the national economy. Many countries around the world are able to increase their foreign exchange earnings through tourism and this sector has a leading role in the formation of GDP. For example, the share of tourism revenues in GRP is 19.3% in Cyprus, 16.0% in Greece, 15.5% in Greece, 12.5% ​​in Austria, 9.7% in England, 9.3% in Italy, In Russia - 6.5%. Uzbekistan is also focusing on the development of the tourism sector, but the share of tourism in GDP is 2.5%, which is very low.

It should be noted that today the tourism industry is unique as a separate branch of the national economy, its product is the right to use certain services, and these services are created in other sectors of the economy. However, the positive impact of the tourism industry on the national economy can only be seen as it develops comprehensively, that is, the effectiveness of tourism is achieved through its parallel development and interaction with other socio-economic sectors and sectors in the country.

There are several factors in the development of tourism, most of which are innovation. In a market economy, the development of the country's economy cannot be achieved without innovations. In particular, innovation-driven processes are a priority for the developing economies. Tourism is an important multiplier of the effective use of the national economy and the rich historical and cultural potential of its separate regions. In order to successfully address the urgent problems of the rapid development of the industry, it is necessary to develop transport, social and engineering infrastructure, services in recreational areas, roadside infrastructure. Naturally, all this requires significant financial costs and significant investments. According to experts, direct and indirect income from tourism will be one of the most important means of its rapid growth. It should be noted that today the tourism industry is unique as a separate branch of the national economy, its product is the right to use certain services, and these services are created in other sectors of the economy. However, the positive impact of the tourism industry on the national economy can only be seen as it develops comprehensively, that is, the effectiveness of tourism is achieved through its parallel development and interaction with other socio-economic sectors and sectors in the country.

There are several factors in the development of tourism, most of which are innovation. In a market economy, the development of the country's economy cannot be achieved without innovations. In particular, innovation-driven processes are a priority for the developing economies. Tourism is an important multiplier of the effective use of the national economy and the rich historical and cultural potential of its separate regions. In order to successfully address the urgent problems of the rapid development of the industry, it is necessary to develop transport, social and engineering infrastructure, services in recreational areas, roadside infrastructure. Naturally, all this requires significant financial costs and significant investments. According to experts, direct and indirect income from tourism will be one of the most important means of its rapid growth..

In addition to the expert's opinion that investment in tourism should be justified, it is important that Uzbekistan, which faces a shortage of financial resources for accelerated economic development, needs to use this position in a timely and effective manner. Investment in tourism is primarily the use of financial resources in the form of capital in the long term (over a year or more), whether inside or outside the country, in order to benefit the sector.

Methodology

Interview with scholars and industry representatives to promote innovative investments in the development of tourism in Uzbekistan, to dramatically enhance its role in addressing social and economic problems, to analyze their research, to track trends and to describe their categories. synthesis methods were used and the author's conclusion was reported.

Literature Review

Currently, many scholars and researchers are engaged in the role of investment in innovative development of tourism. In particular, Schumpeter (1934), in his book Theory of Economic Development, introduced the economic concept of innovation and described innovation as a new product, new processes, new markets and new sources of raw materials, and a reorganization of new industries..

Professor G. Kudratov has done research on the potential of tourism in Uzbekistan and the state policy in its development. Economist is developing tourism and tourism industry, ensuring the rights of tourists, rational use of available tourist resources, improving the regulatory framework related to the sector, creating conditions for tourism for children, youth, disabled and underprivileged people, attracting investment for the development of tourism industry. policy, key directions of creation of equal opportunities in the market of tourist services for personnel, business entities.

Economist D. Aslanova in her research has scientifically justified the tourism industry and its development priorities, namely the processes of globalization and their impact on the tourism services market, the development of tourism in the example of Samarkand region. According to the scientist's research, the prerequisite for the economic growth and quality of life of any country is the prerequisite for deepening globalization in the world and the advanced development of high-tech technologies. Innovation activity, in turn, depends on the economic and scientific-technical potential of the state, its innovation policy and capacity, as well as the spiritual state of society. It is important to note that trends in the development of the international tourism services market, including innovative development in the sector, are important..

In his research, B.Safarov conducted research on improving the methodological and methodological foundations of the innovative development of the national tourism services market, the study of the socio-economic importance of the tourism services market in the development of tourism in the country based on the requirements of innovative development. improvement of methodological and methodological approach to innovative development, development of tourism and recreation cluster model The main areas of study, as well as economic and organizational mechanisms to improve the serious attention .

Main part

Realization of the huge tourism potential in Uzbekistan, sharp increase of its role in development of national economy, strengthening of its role in creation of new workplaces require transition of this sector from traditional model of development to innovative model. Serious measures are being taken in our country in this direction. In particular, an innovative project for the construction of a large tourist cluster within the Yellowstone and Grand Canon National Parks of the United States is being implemented on the basis of Bakhmal and Zaamin districts of Jizzakh region.. In this regard, we would like to try to justify the importance and necessity of tourism development in Uzbekistan on an innovative basis.

First, at the present stage of human society development, innovative development covers all spheres of human society and all sectors of the national economy, and tourism can never be left out of these processes. Innovation will enable rapid and sustained growth of the national economy of Uzbekistan through the use of modern science and technology, new technologies, new products, new communications tools, new services, new ways of management and consumption. The Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Sh.Mirziyoev on September 21, 2018 "About approval of the Strategy of innovative development of the country" reads: An important condition for the dynamic development of the Republic of Uzbekistan”. In this regard, the head of state approved the "Road Map" on implementation of the Strategy and Innovation Development Strategy of the Republic of Uzbekistan for 2019-2021, as well as target indicators of development of the Republic of Uzbekistan until 2030.. The effectiveness of innovative development is determined by the extent to which it covers all types of human activity and all sectors and sectors of the national economy. In this regard, tourism is no exception, as an important component of the national economy. Intensive changes in the tourism sector, on the one hand, are a steady increase in demand for tourism services and, on the other hand, an acute need for its innovative development, while also ensuring the active participation of the sector in the integration processes. The emergence and implementation of innovations in the tourism sector will provide the basis for implementing systemic, interdependent and highly positive changes in this sector.

Secondly, the tourism sector attracts significant resources and is an effective use of them on an innovative basis, the key to the rapid and sustainable development of the sector. According to a proposal adopted in 1992 by the Rio de Janeiro Conference, progress has been made to prevent future depletion of resources and leave future opportunities to future generations. Thus, the main idea of ​​sustainable development is to achieve the most efficient, cost-effective use of precious, rare and unique resources. Because some types of economic resources are irreversible and their careful use becomes an urgent need. In our view, the main problem of the economy lies at the heart of the idea of ​​sustainable development. Meeting the growing needs of the world's population is facing a shortage of resources. The Sustainable Development Concept encompasses all sectors and sectors of the economy, including tourism, requiring the efficient use of economic resources in each of them, and the maximum economic impact of each resource.

Based on the foregoing, we have emphasized the importance of introducing the concept of sustainable development into the tourism sector. The rapid growth of demand for tourism services also necessitates the corresponding growth of resources attracted to the sector. This aggravates the urgency of the problem of rational use of resources attracted to the network.

Thirdly, the increasing competitive environment in the tourism market under the direct influence of the acceleration of globalization processes and the fact that innovative development has become a key factor in enhancing the competitiveness of tourism products on the world market. One of the distinctive features of the tourism industry is its high profitability. We believe that its high profitability and its high social performance make it attractive to all countries for its rapid development and the use of the positive aspects of the industry. As a result, new tourist facilities are being created, new tourism products are being created, new businesses and organizations are being created, qualified personnel is being sought, and other innovative means of strengthening its position in the competition are being sought. Innovations, their emergence, implementation and operation are the primary means of strengthening the competitiveness of tour operators and travel agents in the tourism services market.

Fourth, the need to transform tourism in Uzbekistan into an innovative way of development is determined by the slow pace of development in this sector of the country, the low utilization potential of the tourism sector, its weak position in the global tourism market, and its inability to compete internationally. The reasons for such a situation in the tourism sector in our country are: unstable tax and budget policies, imperfect legal and regulatory framework for tourism regulation, inadequate quality of tourism services, ineffective pricing policy, underdeveloped tourism infrastructure, lack of investment resources. etc.

Fifth, the dynamic growth of demand for tourism services, especially their quality, as a result of the continuous growth of real incomes and the increasing share of services in its consumption, necessitates the development of innovative activities in the industry. The prospects for the growth of demand for tourism services are wide and wide. The demand for services in the sector will continue to grow due to the emergence of new types of tourism, the growth of population and incomes, and the growing demand for quality tourism services. These factors, coupled with the dynamic growth of the global income of the world's population, contribute to the sustainable and rapid growth of tourism.

Sixth, innovations and their widespread use are of high social importance for tourism companies and organizations. Organizational innovation (for example, scientific organization of labor, innovative management) in a separate touristic enterprise (organization) will facilitate physical labor, improve the working conditions of employees and reduce the share of manual labor in total labor costs. The introduction of technological innovations in a tourism company or organization will improve the skills of employees, increase labor productivity, increase in wages, increase the gross profit and profit of the enterprise (organization) on the basis of resource saving.

Another important result of our theoretical research is that innovative development of tourism in Uzbekistan is not only economically viable, but also highly social. Innovative development of tourism is of great social and social importance both for the society and for the sector and for its separate enterprises, organizations and companies. In our opinion, the social importance of innovative development of tourism at the community level is determined first of all by increasing employment. In addition, the literature in the field of economy recognizes the importance of innovative tourism in eliminating existing seasonality and its sustainable development. Taking into account the fact that one of the factors that seriously affects the effectiveness of the use of huge economic resources attracted to tourism is its seasonality, our conclusions about the social and economic significance of the innovative development of the sector at the national level are scientifically grounded. In addition, the social importance of innovative development of tourism as a social dimension is to improve the quality and standard of living of the population through the gross income of the tourist business entity and wages of its employees, increased tax revenues and budget savings. we want to show a positive effect.

The social importance of innovative tourism at the sectoral level is reflected in the increased flow of investments in this sector and the attraction of qualified personnel by enhancing its competitiveness in cross-sectoral competition. The State Committee for Tourism Development pays special attention to improving tourism efficiency through the use of innovative management and internal management evaluation. The social importance of innovative management, especially for tourism businesses and organizations, is invaluable.Realization of huge economic and tourist potential in Uzbekistan does not happen automatically. In order to solve this urgent problem and become one of the leading sources of growth of national income, we believe that it is necessary to build and launch new large tourist facilities, which will allow tourists to create high quality modern tourism products. We believe that these facilities will serve as an impetus for the revitalization of tourism in the country and the active use of its enormous potential. It would be fair to say that Uzbekistan made its first steps in this direction. An example of a tourist cluster project presented in Jizzakh within the framework of the International Investment Forum is to be built in Bakhmal and Zaamin districts of the region. The project envisages the development of 2,000 hectares of classical tourism: the creation of eco-friendly trails and special tent cities, horse and donkey riding, construction of funiculars, ski complexes, information centers, museums and artisan shops. On the area of ​​5,000 hectares, it is planned to create recreation areas, a sports complex, a nursery for the conservation and training of rare birds and animals. In addition, tourists will have the opportunity to ride camels, watch kupkari games, participate in agricultural activities and harvest medicinal plants. Naturally, the construction of such a large tourist facility in Uzbekistan will require considerable investment resources. At the same time, it creates a large influx of tourists, creates many new jobs, and raises real incomes.

Сonclusion

In our view, the most difficult and difficult part of successful implementation of the concept of accelerated development of tourism implemented in Uzbekistan under the Strategy of Action and its transformation into one of the leading sectors of the national economy is the provision of investment resources. Our firm conclusion is that any positive concept for economic growth has two main conditions: the possibilities for implementing the concept, and the second is the availability of the financial resources it needs to implement. Uzbekistan has sufficient tourism potential and favorable conditions for the rapid development of the tourism industry. However, the problem of attracting the necessary investment resources is crucial in implementing the Concept of accelerated tourism development in the country.

The basis for this conclusion is the following:

-underdeveloped tourism infrastructure (transport, social, engineering, information and communication, utilities) and the need to upgrade it to the requirements of the time;

- inadequate quality of hotel services to modern standards;

-lack of highly qualified personnel in the sphere of tourism, up to eliminating all the problems and obstacles that arise in the course of effective management and operation of enterprises and organizations;

- lack of a coordinated strategy for the creation of tourism products and their successful promotion in the tourism services market.

Naturally, addressing the aforementioned shortcomings can be accomplished at the expense of high investment costs. The rapid development of tourism in Uzbekistan is related to the construction of modern roads, the formation of airports, parking lots, competitive vehicles, high-quality catering, souvenirs and antiques markets, comfortable accommodation, camping, tourism and other tourism facilities. All this further exacerbated the demand for investment resources.

In conclusion, the growing need for rapid growth of the tourism industry necessitates the creation of an economic environment in the country, aimed at active investment in the sector. As a result, the demand for investment resources is increasing year by year.

It is also important to emphasize that innovation plays an important role in accelerating the economic development of society. In practice, they are a tool for increasing economic efficiency through increasing profits. Tourist activity is multifaceted and complex, and it is a convenient venue for the development of innovative processes. Tourist enterprises operating in a highly competitive environment (tour operators and travel agents) can establish their market position only by creating a high quality tourist service or tourist product, developing new tourist routes, lowering costs, increasing production per unit, providing additional conveniences to consumers and more. managed to preserve and strengthen it. This will ultimately lead to higher profitability in the industry.

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