Innovation in Ecology
DOI: 10.21070/ijins.v10i1.319

Encourage land use in land resources diversification


Mаster student in the Tashkent Institute of Irrigation and Agricultural Mechanization Engineers
Uzbekistan
Student in the Tashkent Institute of Irrigation and Agricultural Mechanization Engineers
Uzbekistan

(*) Corresponding Author

diversification land use promotion land fund regulation special taxes

Abstract

The article mentions that it is important to encourage the use of land in the process of diversification of land use. The incentive function is a mechanism of economic impact for land users to make effective use of land.

Introduction

Economic incentives for land use and protection shall be aimed at raising the interest of land owners, land users and lessees to maintain and restore soil fertility, protecting land from negative effects of production, and shall include:

- provision of land tax privileges to existing irrigated lands and lands under reclamation;

- providing tax and credit and other benefits for legal entities and individuals, engaged in the protection and reproduction of land, with low-cost and resource-saving technologies;

- improving the quality of land, developing scientifically-adaptive crops, promoting the production of environmentally friendly products;

- allocation of budget means for rehabilitation of land, protection of agro-technical, forest-ameliorative and other lands;

-partial coverage of reduced income by means of budgetary funds as a result of temporary conservation of land parcels of land, land users and tenants.

Penalties are imposed on land parcels in cases of illegal actions with land parcels, contamination of land parcels and poisoning, and land use violations. The implementation of this function is based on land monitoring and evaluation of land use efficiency. Thus, introduction of this function is of great importance for quality use of lands and, in particular, the full restoration of fertility of the Earth, ie introduction of phases 2 and 3 of the rehabilitation cycle.

Theoritical background

It is noteworthy to say that high-yielding crop yields a higher elevation for the development of the district if we always use the resources of the land rationally and effectively and safeguard them from harmful consequences [1]. At the same time, in addition to effective land use, it must be properly watered. The following are some of the ways in which we can solve the problems of economic incentives for land use and the widespread use of polluting taxes (Graph 2). Economic incentives are provided on the one hand with taxation, tax exemptions, tax-exempt policies, lending and so on. On the other hand, it envisages a system of special taxation for products manufactured on the basis of environmentally-friendly products and ecologically hazardous technologies [2].

The order of implementation of measures related to economic incentives for rational use and protection of lands is defined by the legislation. Promoting the rational use of land is an important criterion for ensuring the effective implementation of the economic mechanism, which will encourage land users to be careful about the natural environment and rationally use natural resources and preserve the existing natural environment for the future generations [3].

Main part

Graph 4 illustrates a number of issues in the field of land use, protection and conservation. In addition, it will be necessary to improve the mechanisms of land use assessment, their efficient use, land degradation, study of the main directions of land-use, studying and implementing international experience, and encouraging the use of land resources. This, in turn, contributes to the development of the future of the district, to the achievement of high productivity of farmers and dehkan farms. Additionally, it would be necessary to conduct extensive use of economic mechanisms such as land cadastre in Altyaryk district and economic incentives and penalties using its data [4]. At the same time, if we use the land resources properly in our research, in general, if we take theoretically the approach to improving the mechanism of incentives for the use of land resources, we will not be surprised to say that it is appropriate to explain them as follows. Figure 5 depicts the distribution of financial resources to stimulate the agricultural sector [5]. Improvement of incentive mechanisms for efficient use of land resources was needed to improve land use and farming on the basis of economic liberalization, economic and social relations [6].

Figure 1 Effective and rational use of land resources

privileges

Figure 1.

Figure 2 Widespread use of special taxes on economic incentives for land use

Figure 2.

Figure 3 Principles of protection and rational use of land

Figure 3.

Figure 4 Measures to protect land resources in the use of the land fund

Figure 4.

Figure 5 Financial resources used to stimulate the agricultural sector.

Figure 5.

Table 1 The main principles of economic methods of using land resources.

According to the study area Economic instruments and mechanisms Basic principles of land use incentives
Land allocation Land resources circulation registration Implementation of incentives in the form of effective forms according to the intended use
Development and implementation of low-capacity technologies Deduction of land tax on land use level, exemption from taxes on the cost of land improvement Full cost recovery of damage to land acquisition or improvement of reclamation status of newly acquired lands for mastering new lands
Control over the use and protection of land resources Compensation for the removal of land is not only the amount of land withdrawn, but also on the basis of their quality Increase penalties and ensure full economic redress in connection with irrational use of land and their inadequate protection
Table 1.

Explanation: table created by author research.

An important research is to analyze the situation in foreign countries for the use of land resources. Because the results of this analysis will lead to a clear analytical approach to the development of the mechanisms for diversifying land use diversity and the achievement of perspective schemes of efficiency.

So, there are some aspects of Japanese agriculture, and there is no doubt that their study also encourages learners to be more in a dream. We have decided to review the agrarian policies of the developed countries separately, and let's take a look at the general similarities.

The state's influence on the USA agricultural land use is considerable, explaining that the demand for foodstuffs is closely linked to the domestic market with the world market, as well as the presence of a large number of medium and small commodity producers.

The role of the state, as well as other developed countries, plays a major role in Japanese land policy. The agrarian sector is regulated by the state and supported. A major part of government assistance to stimulate agricultural commodity prices to stimulate domestic production. Effective use of land is always encouraged.

Once the European Union has been established, it is one of the most difficult policies to develop agriculture on a single basis. The Common Agrarian Policy was intended to address the economic interests of the first six countries of the European Union, with the aim of its emergence, in the agricultural sector. The Common Agrarian Policy was established primarily to identify the integration and overall policies of agricultural production in EU countries. The integration processes that shape the European Union's modern look are developing in two main areas:

1. Extensive - strengthening integration on the basis of integration of new EU member states;

2. Intensive - strengthening integration through more simple ways of collaborating into more complex forms.

The development of the common land policy in recent years has affected the growth of EU member states, trade in countries of the world, changes in agriculture and political circles, but its basic principles have not changed. EU countries will help to identify the socio-economic and prospective aspects of the country's resources and ways of its development.

Land use by private landowners should be strictly adhered to in the law of zones, although they are administered differently in different countries. For example, a landlord who has violated this law in Scotland may be deported in an administrative manner. In the United States, there is a system of penalties for such violations. In a number of countries, land allocated for land use is permitted only for construction of buildings that are related to agriculture. And they are forbidden to build residential and industrial buildings.

In France, 18,000 out of 36,000 communi-ties have been carted and their use plans have been developed. In the UK, it is forbidden to change the type of land. One of the most advanced land use laws in Germany is the preservation of the agricultural potential, taking into account the increasing demand for land.

The basis of this policy is the Federal Land Use Act that has been developed and adopted in every part of the country. The purpose of this Act is to support the traditional agricultural producer and to ensure that its land remains intact. Thus, despite the diversity of measures, in developed countries, policies have one common ground - the conservation of agricultural land under rapid urbanization and transformation of the economy.

In addition to administrative measures, economic and financial incentives for the conservation of agricultural land are widespread. At the same time, the main means are measures of taxation of agricultural land in respect of lands occupied with industrial and residential buildings. This is a generally accepted approach in developed countries where practically applying any form of preferential treatment or tax exemption from agricultural land tax or land tax.

These different approaches can be viewed on the basis of separate countries. For example, Australian farmland is fully exempt from land tax. In the UK, farms are exempt from real estate tax. In Sweden, agricultural land is fully exempt from land tax. Owners of private property included in the Netherlands Environmental Protection Act, mean that all farms are not taxed.

Partial liberation of land tax is also of considerable importance, particularly in North America. Usually land tax is calculated based on the annual market price of the land, based on the principle of its most efficient and useful use. In Finland, agricultural land prices are set at a market price but cheaper. Again, the single valuation principle of income tax on agricultural lands is also applied.

In France, if land is used for long-term lease, it is exempt from the hereditary estate. In Ireland, when the inheritance or gift of the land is taxed, it is reduced to 45% of the total tax rate when it comes to farming. In Portugal, if land is sold on land, the tax is 10%, and if the land is 8%. In the Netherlands, however, this gap is higher - 6% for urban and 1% in rural areas.

In many countries, farmers also have the privilege of increasing their capital. In Canada, the company's balance sheet value is 75% higher. In agriculture, there is a more favorable definition, and the first $500,000 increase is the tax exempt. In rural areas other than agriculture, this figure is only $100,000. Given the actual price of the farms, most of these households do not pay taxes.

In Italy, when landowners pass on one of the members of their family to their members, recipients do not pay taxes on the sale price of land. Thus, there are various forms of preferential taxation of agricultural land plots. These benefits can be summed up. Government interference with the right to private land use is primarily related to the sale and lease of land plots, as well as to the order of inheritance.

Most Western countries have a central role in managing land resources. Land management in foreign countries is managed in a complex and purposeful manner. In many of these countries, small areas of land use, land degradation, and other issues are seriously controlled. In addition to managing land resources within countries, there are larger bodies of government - government agencies.

In addition to applying a number of incentives for landowners' work on agricultural development, government agencies and interstate land management bodies also take measures to prevent land degradation, and to protect them from unauthorized use. Thus, the use of land resources in foreign countries is based on private ownership of the land, which does not contradict common interests, as it is governed by the state.

The common ground in managing land resources in foreign countries is that the state takes an active part in land policy, so the rights and restrictions set out in the Law on Agricultural Land Use are set out. Based on the experience of foreign countries, the main directions of regulation of land use in the leading countries of the world were identified and opportunities for their implementation in Uzbekistan were studied. As a result, state regulation of the land market in the Republic and the regional patterns of privatization of land plots were revealed.

Based on the experience of world economy, the following is acknowledged. Danish legislation regulates the land market regulation by increasing the focus on the development of private family farmers, the eradication of land acquisition by juridical persons, and speculation in land sales. German land legislation has established strict accountability and control over any land and land acquisition changes for agricultural land.

For example, the use of all types of agricultural land requires the transfer of rights to use in the transition to a different subject in three ways, for example, a special solution: Firstly, the legal status of agricultural land for non-agricultural use; and secondly, in the area less than one hectare of land parcels, such as "shattering"; The third is to prevent the emergence of more than 400-500 hectares of land.

In Germany, the use of agricultural land for other purposes is legally binding unless legally enforced

there is a certain amount of land allocation for public needs. In the Law of the Republic of Switzerland "On land ownership" (1994), it was stated that the land would be used as a direct user only for private property purposes.

In addition, the law outlines the minimum and maximum amount of optimum (optimal) land area of ​​the farmer. For example, in defining the minimum land area of ​​a farmer, it is determined that the average employer is less than 75%, ie at least 2100 hours a year, while the maximum value of this indicator does not exceed 2.5-3 per cent of annual income.

The land law of Portugal, Spain, and Italy is also restricted to restricting or over-extending the land to farmers. In these countries, land acquisition is mainly foreseen, ie the concept of "the ability to live a small business life" is defined by law and strictly adheres to this principle in the process of land acquisition. In Sweden, a great deal of attention is paid to state regulation in the area of ​​inheritance, in order to preserve the entire land and solve other land use issues.

It should be noted that, following the experience of the European, Asian, US and CIS countries, I note the following areas that can be implemented:

  1. ensure strict compliance with laws and regulations in the field of land policy;
  2. further strengthening of legal protection of land for non-agricultural purposes with a view of prioritizing agricultural activities;
  3. strengthening scientific and methodological and economic justification studies to prevent "fragmentation" or enlargement of land parcels with minimum and maximum spatial areas;
  4. introduction of tenders based on the groundbreaking of ownership criteria for targeted, rational and efficient use of land;
  5. strict limitation of land tenure, redemption and pledge terms;
  6. financial support of landowners and heirs;
  7. achieving a certain level of capital flow regulation in the field of land use and sale, using transparent market principles;
  8. introduction of land tax based on regional features in land price formation;
  9. spiritually and financially stimulating entities using land-based land;
  10. establishment of a land-based information system for each land parcel;
  11. development of land use indicators;
  12. arranging for rapid use of electronic programs to encourage land users.

The use of land as a means of production indicates a number of differences. Incentives for effective use of land not only serve the interests of the farmer, but also creates an opportunity to satisfy the demand of the population for agricultural products at affordable prices, which serves to overcome socio-economic problems in the district. One of the most important features of reproduction in agriculture is that the production process is directly related to living things - land, vegetation, and livestock and is associated with natural economic laws [7]. The difference between the earth and the other means of production is that it is not eaten or worn out during use.

Cocnlusions

Expansion of economic and other methods of effective use of land resources should include the following processes:

- allocation of land resources that will facilitate land use stabilization that promotes the development of advanced farming activities on the ground of consistent implementation of a set of measures to improve the effective use and protection of resources;

- exploitation of land resources that encourages efficient use of their resources in accordance with their natural climatic and social potential.

References

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  3. . K.D.Sharma, B.Sony. Land use diversification for sustainable rainfed agriculture. India. -2006. - P. 55-56.
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